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Tertiary; a - flysch

Mesozoic in general;
a - flysh,
b - ophiolitic mélange


Paleozoic; a - flysch



Crystalline schists
Depth to the base



The South Adriatic-Ionian Zone is built up of Cretaceous shallow marine limestones and anhydrites, also accompanied by dolomites in the upper parts; next, of transgressive Middle Eocene limestone and Eocene-Oligocene flysch. In the area of the map presented, this zone is thrust over by the narrow and highly tectonized Budva Zone which has a rather condensed column comprising Lower Triassic sediments; next, Middle Triassic rocks with Anisian flysch and Ladinian volcanics in one part of the terrain, and carbonates in the rest of it. The locally missing Upper Triassic is followed by the neritic Jurassic. The thin Lower Creaceous, sometimes even absent, is overlain by Cenomanian-Senonian limestone and predominantly Oligocene flysch.

The Dalmatian-Herzegovinian Zone (formerly inadequately designated as the High Karst Nappe) has been thurst over the Budva Zone. The direction and distance of movement of this zone is still a matter of speculation. In the map area this zone is represented by the Stara Crna Gora (Old Montenegro) Overthrust. The Middle Triassic resembles that found in the Budva Zone. The Upper Triassic is characterized by a carbonate platform consisting of shallow water carbonates whose deposition went on till the end of the Cretaceous and terminated with Paleogene foraminiferal limestones. The Sarajevo Sigmoid, in the map area known as the Kuci overthrust, is a conspicuous belt of mesozoic flysh. It consists of thin Permian and Triassic clastics and neritic carbonates; next, of an unconformable sequence of limestones that range from the Upper Jurassic to the Turonian, and of transgressive Durmitor flysch of Senonian age, whose fold fabric is characteristically intricate. Going NW, the composition of this belt becomes increasengly complex, the onset of flysch sedimentation falling in the Jurassic. The East Bosnian-Durmitor block represents a composite pile of nappes, the front of the Durmitor nappe being its SW boundary.Below this nappe, consisting mainly of Paleozoic and Triassic rocks, there is another nappe dominantly of Triassic sedimnets with volcanics, revealed by tectonic windows near Berane. The tectonic windows in the latter display in turn the Durmitor flysch whose displacements exceed 40 km. Numerous thin nappe sheets and klippen can also be observed further NE showing that this area is built up of several units differing in development. The Lower Triassic is mostly represented by sandstone. In the Anisian, dolomites and bioclastic limestone with red Bulog limestone predominate, while the volcanites close the sequence. The Ladinian generally starts with cherts and tuffs, and is followed by comparatively thin cherty limestone, dolomite and reef limestones. During the Upper Triassic a carbonate platform with a thick limestone sequence developed in the SW of this area, while in the NE (Romanija and Jahorina Mts) only rather thin Triassic-Jurassic cherty limestones were deposited. In the SW the Jurassic is mostly represented by limestones, whereas in the NE it is built up of Ophiolitic Mélange, the two kinds of rock being separated by a narrow flysch zone. The Cretacous is generally absent. The Drina-Ivanjica Element is made up of a Paleozoic basement exibiting a strong Hercynian tectogenesis with NE-SW trending axes; next, of a Triassic carbonate platform the parts of which were gravitationally transported in the Ophiolitic Mélange during the Upper Jurassic. These are followed by a shallow marine Upper Cretaceous in the SW parts, and a transgressive Senonian sequence (rudite, rudist limestone, pre-flysch, Kosovska Mitrovica flysch) along its boundary with the Vardar Zone.

is the most complicated belt of the Balkan Peninsula. It is composed of several blocks of diverse composition, geological history and provenience, and includes characteristic oceanic elements. One of these, the Srem Block that can be observed at Fruska gora Mt, is built up of partly metamorphosed Mesozoic rocks and Creataceous flysch in one of its tectonically separated domains, and of shallow marine deposits in the other, while tectonic zones consist of ophiolites. The Jadar Block rests on the Jadar Paleozoic and shows no traces of Hercynian folding. The Triassic is represented by the Porphyrite-Chert Formation, while the Upper Cretaceous consists of flysch. Tertiary magmatites, i.e. the granitoids of Cer, Boranja and Bukulja, the volcanites of Borac and Kotlenik are outstanding features of this block. No agreement has yet been reached as to the age and geotectonic position of metamorphites near Arandelovac (Bukulja and Vencac Mts.)
Further south the Vardar Zone can be subdivided into three parts. These are: (1) The External Vardar Subzone built up of blocks highly differing in composition, rich in ultramafites (Stolovi Mt, etc); next, of Senonian Ophiolitic Mélange, with metamorphism ranging up to the Cretaceous. This subzone also includes granitoids of Zeljin and Kopaonik, and volcanic rocks; (2) the Central Vardar Subzone which covers a conspicuous belt of Lower Cretaceous Gledici para-flysch resting on Jurassic ophiolitic mélange. Methamorphism here varies on age; (3) the Inner Vardar Subzone which comprises crystaline schists of unknown age, the Senonian Toplica flysch, and the Lece volcanics.

separates the East Bosnian-Durmitor Block from the Drina-Ivanjica Element. It carries large olilstoplaques of Triassic limestone gravitationally transported from the NE and E (Devetak, Zlatibor, Zlatar, Giljeva, Mokra Gora, Zljeb); next, large masses of ultramafites (Krivaja-Konjuh, Zlatibor), and blocks of oceanic crust (Dobrun) embedded in the ophiolitic mélange and covering it. In its southern part this belt separates the Dinarides from the Hellenides and is thrust over Mirdita.

are present in the map area only to a very limited extent. The Debar Zone consists mainly of Triassic limestone and gypsiferous Paleogene, while the West-Macedonian (Korab) Zone is made up of low rank metamorphics, mostly of Paleozoic age.

comprises two complexes of crystalline schists: (1) the lower, highly metamorphosed and pre-Cambrian in age, and the upper (Vlasina) complex of green schists ranging in age from Riphean to Lower Paleozoic. These rocks were intruded by granitoids whose age ranges from Paleozoic (Vlajna, Bujanovac) to Tertiary (Surdulica). The position of the Jastrebac granitoid is still under dispute.

The Superagetikum (Golubac-Luznica zone) is made up of green schists, Devonian flysch, Permian red sandstones, Mesozoic limestones, and Jurassic flysch. It has been thrust over the Getikum, a large complex nappe, which builds up most of the eastern territory of Serbia. It is subdivided into several zones which partly differ in their geological history and were, therefore, interpreted even as separate nappes (Suva Planina, Kucaj, Timok, Tupiznica, Porecka reka, Stara planina, Vidlic).
The Getikum consists of Proterozoic-Cambrian schists, Ordovician and Silurian low rank metamorphics, Devonian flysch, Permian and Triassic red sandstones, and Middle Triassic-Cretaceous limestones, as well as the Upper Cretaceous volcanic sedimentary formation in the Timok area. While in Romania large Getikum klippen (Bahna, Mehedinci) are preserved, in eastern Serbia only rather small klippen of the Sip and Tekija crystalline are open to view.
The Infragetikum embraces ultramafics underlyng these klippen; next, Zaglavak and Deli Jovan gabbroes with adjacent metamorphites, and the Sinaia beds.
The Danubikum represents an autochtone in relation to these units. The oldest rocks comprised in it are green schists with numerous igneous veins, overlain by Upper Carboniferous strata and a transgressive succession of rocks ranging in age from Liassic to Cretaceous. At the close of the Cretaceous, flysch begins its development in the Miroc domain.

has a highly diverse basement consisting of crystalline schists and granitoids in south-eastern Banat, northern Banat and northern Backa, of Mesozoic rocks in most of the central and southern Banat, and of ophiolites along the margins of subzones and block of the Vardar Zone. The basin is filled with lacustrine and marine deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age.

Published by: Republical Foundation for Geological Investigations and Geological Institute GEMINI
Chief editor: M.D. Dimitrijevic
Maps, text: M.D. Dimitrijevic
Translated by: Z. Stojadinovic

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